[Ref Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 12-7, ISBN978-1-56027-901-3] IMPORTANT Before we learn the definition of wind, please help ourselves to remember than wind has at least two component: wind SPEED wind DIRECTION  Okay, so what cause wind? Uneven heating causes change in (air) density, which results in pressure gradients. Due to uneven heating […]

Weight-shift control aircraft

[Ref. Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 5-13] Weight-shift control aircraft control two axes (roll and pitch) by shifting the CG. Weight-shift control aircraft is featured with an “A” frame suspended from the flexible wing attached to a three-wheeled carriage. The pilot has a horizontal bar (called a control bar) which is operated in […]

Air Density

[Ref. Wiki, Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 4-4] The air density, density of air or atmospheric density, denoted ρ (Greek: rho), is the mass per unit volume of Earth’s atmosphere. 3H , low(er) air density – Hot High Altitude Humid Air density changes with variation in actual height (altitude), temperature and humidity. At 1013.25 hPa […]

Intake manifold v.s Fuel Distributor (Manifold valve)

During learning the induction system, you may have already known that throttle regulates the fuel-air mixture to the combustion chambers. However, have you ever felt confusing about the downstream of throttle valve in carburetor-type and fuel-injection-type engine? We know that in fuel-injection-type engine, a fuel Control Unit (FCU) replaces carburetor. Also, the downstream of throttle […]


Sometimes, I make confusion between the function of CHT and EGT. Therefore, I would like to make an article to review the knowledge about these two instrument on small GA. CHT (in Oil system)- indicator of Detonation possibility EGT  (in Exhaust system)- for lean/enrich the fuel-air mixture to CCM or correct setting To prevent over-rich […]