# Wind

[Ref Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 12-7, ISBN978-1-56027-901-3] IMPORTANT Before we learn the definition of wind, please help ourselves to remember than wind has at least two component: wind SPEED wind DIRECTION  Okay, so what cause wind? Uneven heating causes change in (air) density, which results in pressure gradients. Due to uneven heating […]

# Powered parachute

[Ref. Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 5-13] A powered parachute wing is a parachute that has a cambered upper surface and a flatter under surface. The pilot and passenger sit in tandem in front of the engine, which is located at the rear of a vehicle. The airframe is attached to the parachute […]

# Weight-shift control aircraft

[Ref. Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 5-13] Weight-shift control aircraft control two axes (roll and pitch) by shifting the CG. Weight-shift control aircraft is featured with an “A” frame suspended from the flexible wing attached to a three-wheeled carriage. The pilot has a horizontal bar (called a control bar) which is operated in […]

# What’s “Critical AoA” / “Stalling AoA”

[Ref Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 5-3] What’s Critical AoA? Critical AOA = stalling AOA ≅ CLmax point ; Critical AoA is the AoA angle in which the wings have reached CLmax point. After reaching Critical AoA, any further increase AoA will result in the wing stalling.

# Air Density

[Ref. Wiki, Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 4-4] The air density, density of air or atmospheric density, denoted ρ (Greek: rho), is the mass per unit volume of Earth’s atmosphere. 3H , low(er) air density – Hot High Altitude Humid Air density changes with variation in actual height (altitude), temperature and humidity. At 1013.25 hPa […]

[Ref Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 12-23] Tornadoes is literally the most violent sort of thunderstorm ! Studies show that wind in such a vortex can exceed 200 knots with pressure inside the vortex quite low. The three (3) common type of tornadoes are: “funnel cloud” – if the cloud does not reach the […]

# embedded thunderstorms

[Ref Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 12-16] Embedded thunderstorms referring cumulonimbus or sort of extensive vertical clouds can be obscured by other cloud formations and are not always visible from the ground or while in flight. Embedded thunderstorms are likely found in warm from occlusion

# Surface Weather Chart

[Ref Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 12-12] What’s Surface Weather Chart? Surface Weather Chart/Map provides various information: fronts areas of high and low pressure surface winds pressures for each station   #Surface weather maps Read More – # Wind Symbol # Isobars

# Intake manifold v.s Fuel Distributor (Manifold valve)

During learning the induction system, you may have already known that throttle regulates the fuel-air mixture to the combustion chambers. However, have you ever felt confusing about the downstream of throttle valve in carburetor-type and fuel-injection-type engine? We know that in fuel-injection-type engine, a fuel Control Unit (FCU) replaces carburetor. Also, the downstream of throttle […]

# CHT? EGT?

Sometimes, I make confusion between the function of CHT and EGT. Therefore, I would like to make an article to review the knowledge about these two instrument on small GA. CHT (in Oil system)- indicator of Detonation possibility EGT  (in Exhaust system)- for lean/enrich the fuel-air mixture to CCM or correct setting To prevent over-rich […]