Pitch v.s Blade angle (Propeller)

[Ref. Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 7-4] Angle of Incidence (AoI) of blade (= pitch) ≠ blade angle However, pitch is largely determined by blade angle and so two terms are often used interchangeably – again, “Pitch” is not exactly the “blade angle”!   What’s “Pitch”? “Pitch” is the distance in inches, which the propeller would screw […]

Traffic Alert Collision Avoidance System (TCAS)

[Ref Jeppesen, FAA-H-8083-15B – Instrument Flying Handbook Page 5-30 to 5-34, FAA AIM] What ‘s Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) ? TCAS is an airborne collision avoidance system (ACAS), that is based on radar beacon signals which operates independent of ground-based equipment. Traffic alert systems receive transponder information from nearby aircraft to help determine their […]

Thunderstorm icing

[Ref Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 12-24] Updrafts in a thunderstorm support abundant liquid water with relatively large droplet sizes in the upward current. When water content carried above the freezing level, the water becomes supercooled. When temperature in the upward current cools to about –15 °C, much of the remaining water vapor sublimates […]

“funnel cloud” vs “tornado” vs “waterspout”

[Ref Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 12-23] What’s funnel cloud, tornado and waterspout ? All this three weather phenomena are high-speed vortex extending downward from the cumulonimbus base, and the difference is that: Funnel cloud does not reach the surface; Tornado touches a land surface; Waterspout touches a water surface Formation of funnel cloud Should the air being […]

Towering Cumulus (TCU)

[Ref Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 12-16] What’s “Towering Cumulus (TCU)”? Towering Cumulus (TCU) is a type of cloud with extensive vertical development. TCU indicate areas of instability in the atmosphere, and the air around and inside them is turbulent. TCU is potential to develop into cumulonimbus (CB) or thunderstorms.