Cumulonimbus (CB)

[Ref Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 12-16] Cumulonimbus (CB) is a type of cloud with extensive vertical development and is perhaps the most dangerous cloud type – indeed, CB is a type of clouds of operational significance (對飛行有重要影響的雲) CB appears individually or in groups and is known as either an air mass or orographic thunderstorm: […]

What’s “Liner”?

[Ref Aviation Maintenance Technician Handbook–Airframe, Volume 2 (FAA-H-8083-31A) Chapter 17, AERO QTR_02.11, FAA AC No: 25.857-1] What’s “Liner/ Liners”? Liner is the inner sidewall have sufficient fire integrity and separate from the aircraft structure You may see “liner” in the topic of fire protection system. In AERO QTR_02.11: Liners – The liner must be separate from (but may […]


[Ref the Internet] What’s VMCG/VMCA? VMCG VMCG is the minimum speed on the ground during take-off, at which the aircraft can be controlled by the use of the primary flight controls only, after a sudden failure of the critical engine, with the other engine(s) remaining at take-off thrust. VMCA VMCA is the minimum control speed in flight […]

Runaway stabilizer

[Ref ACE The Technical Pilot Interview 43/348] Runaway Stabilizer happens when the stabilizer does not stop at the required point. It indicates by unusual rotation of the stabilizer to its maximum upward or downward mechanical stops, thereby inducing a marked out-of-trim unstable condition. Each aircraft type should has its own drill, but in general : Autopilot (if engaged), […]


[Ref ACE The Technical Pilot Interview 24/348] What’s compressibility? Air being compressed onto a surface (at a right angle to the relative airflow), resulting in an increase in density, and thus dynamic pressure rises above its expected value. When will the compressibility become significant? At “force divergence Mach number” – above 5-10% Mcrit (critical Mach […]