Turbulence v.s Windshear

[Ref HKO] Turbulence is caused by rapid, irregular motion of the air ; Windshear is a sustained change (i.e. lasting more than a few seconds) in headwind or tailwind resulting in changes in the lift to the aircraft. Turbulence is caused by rapid, irregular motion of the air. It brings about bumps or jolts, but […]

Wind

[Ref Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 12-7, ISBN978-1-56027-901-3] IMPORTANT Before we learn the definition of wind, please help ourselves to remember than wind has at least two component: wind SPEED wind DIRECTION  Okay, so what cause wind? Uneven heating causes change in (air) density, which results in pressure gradients. Due to uneven heating […]

Cloud

[Ref Understanding Weather & Climate, Books a la Carte Edition (6th Edition) #ISBN-13: 978-0321773227 #ISBN-10: 0321773225 CH 5 Atmospheric Moisture, CH 6 Cloud Development and Forms, Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 12-15] Clouds are visible indicators of water content and are often indicative of future weather.   Three (3) basic criteria for clouds to […]

Satellite weather images

[Ref Weather Flying, Fifth Edition 35/382] Application and limitations of different weather images Infrared is used to give temperatures of the clouds. That’s how meteorologists tell tops; Water vapor satellite images display water vapor quantity in the middle to upper troposphere, (700–200 millibars [mb], or about 11,000 feet on up to about 39,000 feet). The image’s […]

Why pilots should understanding of high- and low-pressure wind patterns? – How to take advantage of beneficial tailwinds!

[Ref Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 12-8, The Pilot’s Manual PM2 Ground School Page 329, 330] Why pilots should understanding of high- and low-pressure wind patterns? Ans: There are various reasons! It is taking about how to take advantage of beneficial tailwinds. It is also related to the direction of wind drift when […]

Hail (Met)

[Ref ISBN978-1-56027-901-3, Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 12-17] Hail is a type of precipitation and is an indicator of CB and/or thunderstorm, especially beneath the anvil of a large cumulonimbus Supercooled drops above the freezing level begin to freeze. Once a drop has frozen, other drops latch on and freeze to it, so the hailstone […]

Thunderstorm icing

[Ref Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 12-24] Updrafts in a thunderstorm support abundant liquid water with relatively large droplet sizes in the upward current. When water content carried above the freezing level, the water becomes supercooled. When temperature in the upward current cools to about –15 °C, much of the remaining water vapor sublimates […]

“funnel cloud” vs “tornado” vs “waterspout”

[Ref Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 12-23] What’s funnel cloud, tornado and waterspout ? All this three weather phenomena are high-speed vortex extending downward from the cumulonimbus base, and the difference is that: Funnel cloud does not reach the surface; Tornado touches a land surface; Waterspout touches a water surface Formation of funnel cloud Should the air being […]

“Typhoons”, “Cyclones”, “Hurricanes” – all are Tropical storms !

[Ref Understanding Weather & Climate, Books a la Carte Edition (6th Edition) #ISBN-13: 978-0321773227 #ISBN-10: 0321773225] Tropical storms have different names depending on where they occur Extreme Western Pacific –  Typhoons Indian Ocean and Australia – Cyclones Atlantic and Eastern Pacific – Hurricanes (Hurricanes are refer to any storm, regardless of location) In structure, these […]