Fronts

[Ref #Understanding Weather & Climate, Books a la Carte Edition (6th Edition) ISBN-13: 978-0321773227 #ISBN-10: 0321773225 CH 9 AIR MASSES and FRONTS # Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 12-18 to 12-22] What’s Fronts? Fronts – a narrow boundary regions between two types of air masses – transition zone at which there are great temperature differences with relatively short distances […]

Orographic uplift

[Understanding Weather & Climate, Books a la Carte Edition (6th Edition) #ISBN-13: 978-0321773227 #ISBN-10: 0321773225 CH 6 Cloud Development and Forms] Orographic uplift Orographic uplift / Orographic effect – The upward displacement of air that leads to adiabatic cooling and possible cloud formation (orographic clouds) Precipitation on windward side; Rain shadow effect on leeward side Rain shadow effect occur due to compression on […]

Forms of Condensation

[Understanding Weather & Climate, Books a la Carte Edition (6th Edition) #ISBN-13: 978-0321773227 #ISBN-10: 0321773225 CH 5 Atmospheric Moisture] Forms of Condensation P.146 Table 5-3 Dew is usually formed on cool, clear, calm nights ; Frost‘s formation is similar to dew but they also need a temperature below freezing (0 °C) Dew Lowering temperature to dew […]

Air mass

[Ref #Understanding Weather & Climate, Books a la Carte Edition (6th Edition) ISBN-13: 978-0321773227 #ISBN-10: 0321773225 CH 5 Atmospheric Moisture, CH 9 AIR MASSES and FRONTS #Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 12-17] Air masses – large volumes (large bodies) of air – fairly uniform temperature AND moisture in horizontal direction, but not uniform in vertical direction Indeed, air masses are […]

Lapse

[Understanding Weather & Climate, Books a la Carte Edition (6th Edition) #ISBN-13: 978-0321773227 #ISBN-10: 0321773225 CH 5 Atmospheric Moisture] Lapse – refers to a decrease in temperature (or pressure) with altitude Dry adiabatic lapse rate (DALR)  – a parcel of unsaturated air rises, it encounters lower surrounding pressure, expends and cools at the rate nearly 3°C/1000 feet Lifting condensation level (LCL) – […]

First (1st) law of thermodynamics and Secondary (2nd) law of thermodynamics

[Understanding Weather & Climate, Books a la Carte Edition (6th Edition) #ISBN-13: 978-0321773227 #ISBN-10: 0321773225 CH 5 Atmospheric Moisture] (Last Update: 2020 Apr 24 0225 Z) (1st) First law of thermodynamics, which states if heat is added, there will be some combination of an expansion of the gases and an increase in its temperature. [ […]

Diabatic /Adiabatic process

[Understanding Weather & Climate, Books a la Carte Edition (6th Edition) #ISBN-13: 978-0321773227 #ISBN-10: 0321773225 CH 5 Atmospheric Moisture] Diabatic /Adiabatic process Diabatic process (e.g formation of fog) – is involving adding OR removing energy from a system. Adiabatic process (e.g formation of clouds) – is involving temperature changes but no heat is added or removed from a substance – i.e ∆H = 0 (REF: [ ∆H (change […]

Structural Icing – 3 forms

[Understanding Weather & Climate, Books a la Carte Edition (6th Edition) #ISBN-13: 978-0321773227 #ISBN-10: 0321773225 CH 5 Atmospheric Moisture] Structural Icing – 3 forms Clear ice (= glazed ice) translucent, smooth appearance related to Supercooled water Rime usually forms at lower temperatures than does clear ice – (approx. -10 °C to -20 °C) rough, milky appearance […]

Supercooled water

[Ref Understanding Weather & Climate, Books a la Carte Edition (6th Edition) #ISBN-13: 978-0321773227 #ISBN-10: 0321773225 CH 5 Atmospheric Moisture, AC 91-74B] Supercooled water Supercooled water is liquid water that is colder than 0 °C Supercooled water – surplus water vapor (saturated water) condenses at temperature below frost point (between 0 and – 4 °C) but it […]

Droplet formation at RH below 100% (e.g Haze/Water)

[Understanding Weather & Climate, Books a la Carte Edition (6th Edition) #ISBN-13: 978-0321773227 #ISBN-10: 0321773225 CH 5 Atmospheric Moisture] Haze/ Water Droplet formation at RH below 100% In theory, Small droplets of pure water require RH far excess of 100% to remain in equilibrium because droplets with highly curved surfaces require greater surrounding vapor pressures to remain […]