Accuracy of coordinate [Conversion]

[Ref AIPHK, Google,] Format of coordinate Decimal Degrees (DD) Degrees Decimal Minutes (DDM) Degrees Minutes Seconds (DMS) There are various formats and the difference is the accuracy. Now, let’s take a look on an example: According to the HK AIP – E1 (Parking Stand)  221847.75N 1135604.77E Obviously, it is 22° 18′ 47.75”  N  113° […]

HF – High Frequency

[Ref AVIA4019, ACE The Technical Pilot Interview 149/348, 150/348] 3-30 MHz (application in aviation from 2 to 22 MHz) uses predictable sky wave propagation paths (i.e refracted off the earth’s ionosphere over great distances) for longer-distance communication but degraded quality and for communications between two specific points only usually for oceanic/desert areas which covers a large […]


[Ref AIP Australia GEN 2.2-20] MULTICOM – the frequency (126.7 MHz) used for broadcast in the vicinity of a non-controlled aerodrome that does not have a discrete CTAF assigned   Read More – #CTAF #UNICOM #Broadcast Area

Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF)

[Ref Jeppesen, AIP Australia GEN 2.2-6, GEN3.2-10] Warning – the definition of CTAF is a bit different between Australia and Jeppesen. Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF) – in Australia CTAF is a designated frequency on which pilots make positional broadcasts when operating in the vicinity of a non-controlled aerodrome OR within a Broadcast Area. IMPORTANT […]

VFR cruising levels (Odd or Even?)

[Ref VFRG (AU), Australia AIP ENR 1.7] VFR flights must be flown at a cruising level appropriate to its magnetic track according to the diagram below and the table: when cruising level is 5000 ft or higher; or when practicable when cruising level is below 5000 ft (CAR 173).     Magnetic tracks From 000° […]