[Ref AIPHK, Google, pgc.umn.edu] Format of coordinate Decimal Degrees (DD) Degrees Decimal Minutes (DDM) Degrees Minutes Seconds (DMS) There are various formats and the difference is the accuracy. Now, let’s take a look on an example: According to the HK AIP – E1 (Parking Stand) 221847.75N 1135604.77E Obviously, it is 22° 18′ 47.75” N 113° […]
[Ref AVIA4019, ACE The Technical Pilot Interview 149/348, 150/348] 3-30 MHz (application in aviation from 2 to 22 MHz) uses predictable sky wave propagation paths (i.e refracted off the earth’s ionosphere over great distances) for longer-distance communication but degraded quality and for communications between two specific points only usually for oceanic/desert areas which covers a large […]
[Ref Jeppesen] What’s Dead Reckoning (DR) ? The estimating or determining of position by advancing an earlier known position by the application of direction, time and speed data.
[Ref Jeppesen] What’s Course? The intended direction of flight in the horizontal plane measured in degrees from north. The ILS localizer signal pattern usually specified as front course or back course. The intended track along a straight, curved, or segmented MLS path.
[Ref AIP Australia GEN 2.2-20] MULTICOM – the frequency (126.7 MHz) used for broadcast in the vicinity of a non-controlled aerodrome that does not have a discrete CTAF assigned Read More – #CTAF #UNICOM #Broadcast Area
[Ref Jeppesen, AIP Australia GEN 2.2-6, GEN3.2-10] Warning – the definition of CTAF is a bit different between Australia and Jeppesen. Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF) – in Australia CTAF is a designated frequency on which pilots make positional broadcasts when operating in the vicinity of a non-controlled aerodrome OR within a Broadcast Area. IMPORTANT […]
[Ref AIP Australia GEN3.2-10] Broadcast Area are depicted on charts by a dotted dark green line and a label stating “for operations in this area SFC-<altitude> use CTAF <frequency>”
[Ref Jeppesen, PPRuNe, flightlearnings.com] What’s Changeover point (COP)? The point at which an aircraft navigating on an ATS route segment defined by reference to very high frequency omnidirectional radio ranges is expected to transfer its primary navigational reference from the facility behind the aircraft to the next facility ahead of the aircraft –to provide the […]
[Ref Jeppesen] What’s Catch Point ? A fix/waypoint that serves as a transition point from the high altitude waypoint navigation structure to the low altitude structure or an arrival procedure (STAR).
[Ref VFRG (AU), Australia AIP ENR 1.7] VFR flights must be flown at a cruising level appropriate to its magnetic track according to the diagram below and the table: when cruising level is 5000 ft or higher; or when practicable when cruising level is below 5000 ft (CAR 173). Magnetic tracks From 000° […]