Area Navigation (RNAV)

[Ref Jeppesen, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 16-28] What’s RNAV? A method of navigation which permits aircraft operation on any desired flight path within the coverage of the station-referenced navigation aids or within the limits of the capability of self-contained aids, or a combination of these. Area Navigation Route (RNAV route) — An ATS route established for the […]

Very High Frequency (VHF) Omnidirectional Range (VOR)

[Ref Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 16-22, ACE The Technical Pilot Interview 101/348, AVIA4019] (Last Update : 2020 Apr 28 1610Z) VOR stands for Very High Frequency (VHF) Onmidirectional Range. VOR provides magnetic bearing information to and from the station. VOR signals transmitted are subject to line-of-sight restrictions. The prefix “onmi-“means all – the […]

Time Systems

[Ref PPL Instruction Kit Vol2 (306) – 9th Edition, V9.2 P.445] Earth’s self-rotation causes  an observer on the earth to see sunrise and sunset – the intervals are defined as Day and Night – the period of time for a complete rotation named a day. Each day is further divided into 24 hours, with 60 minutes for […]

Weather Radar – RDR-4000 IntuVue™

[Weather Radar – RDR-4000 IntuVue™] Radar measures how much of the transmitted energy is reflected back! Also, we also should noticed that : Radar does not directly measure rainfall rate (Radar measures how much of the transmitted energy is reflected back) but the reflected energy is proportional to the rainfall rate So different reflectivity represent […]

VTC of YPPF (Adelaide)

This evening, I would like to talk about the VTC of YPPF (Adelaide) To start with, let me briefly tell you that there are distinguish charts used in flying. Different charts might apply different projection methods. This evening, I would like to share something with you about the Visual Terminal Chart, a.k.a VTC. VTC is […]


[Ref FAA-H-8083-18 Flight Navigator Handbook] The ratio between any given unit of length on a chart and the true distance it represents on the earth is the scale of the chart. Charts are made to various scales for different purposes. If a chart is to show the whole world and yet not be too large, […]

Chart Projections

[Ref FAA-H-8083-18 Flight Navigator Handbook] No one projection satisfying all navigation needs, thus no chart could be perfect for all applications. Before looking into three projection methods, why don’t we learn more about the significance of these words: conformity, Rhumb lines, Great Circle Three (3) most common projections are applied in chart production according to […]