What’s Transponder? What’s Mode A, Mode C, Mode S?

[Ref. Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 14-25, SKYbrary] What’s transponder? Transponder is the airborne portion of the secondary surveillance radar (SSR) system. It receives an interrogation signal sending from ground based interrogator, then it send the return signal back to the ground based radarscope.   What’s Mode A, Mode C, Mode S? Mode A equipment transmits […]

What’s vortex generators?

[Ref Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 5-46] What’s vortex generators? Vortex generators are little fins like device, which usually spaced a few inches apart along the wing ahead of the ailerons or other control surfaces.   Why the aircraft need vortex generators? Vortex generators are used to delay or prevent shock wave induced boundary […]

Flux Gate Compass System (Remote Indicating Compass – “slaved” gyro) v.s Heading indicators (HI) – “Free” gyro

[Ref Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 8-20] Flux valve (Detector unit) (2) two basic characteristics about lines of magnetic flux in the Earth’s magnetic field: a magnet aligns with them, and an electrical current is induced, or generated, in any wire crossed by them Each of the three legs is wound by an electrical coil […]

Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS)

[Ref Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 8-20] Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) processes and sends attitude information to the PFD in order to generate the pitch and bank information of attitude indicator AHRS receives heading information from a magnetometer that senses the earth’s lines of magnetic flux. This information is then processed and send out to the […]

Air Data Computer (ADC)

[Ref Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 8-14] Air Data Computer (ADC) is a separate solid state device that, computes the received barometric pressure and sends a digital signal to the PFD and autopilot control system ADC receives the pitot static inputs as well as computes the difference between the total pressure and the static pressure and generates the information […]

Electronic Flight Display (EFD)

[Ref Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 8-12] EFD = PFD + MFD Electronic Flight Displays (EFDs) commonly referred to as “glass cockpits.” EFDs include flight displays such as primary flight displays (PFD) and multi-function displays (MFD). Benefits Primary electronic instrumentation packages are less prone to failure than their analogue counterparts combine all flight instruments onto a single […]

Advantage of diesel-fueled reciprocating engine

[Ref. Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 7-4] Diesel-fueled reciprocating engine is different from four-stroke cycle, spark ignition, piston engine – the main difference is that previous one design is based on compression ignition and the later one is spark ignition. Diesel (kerosene) in aviation is known as Jet fuel – Jet A1 (or Jet A in […]

Towering Cumulus (TCU)

[Ref Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 12-16] What’s “Towering Cumulus (TCU)”? Towering Cumulus (TCU) is a type of cloud with extensive vertical development. TCU indicate areas of instability in the atmosphere, and the air around and inside them is turbulent. TCU is potential to develop into cumulonimbus (CB) or thunderstorms.