forward CG (load forward) v.s aftward CG (load aftward)

[Ref. Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 5-13, 5-15, 5-16, 5-19, 5-25, 5-43] Aircraft designers tend to locate the aircraft’s CG as nearly as possible to the 20 percent point of the mean aerodynamic chord (MAC). Actually, it is common that the wing’s CL is to the rear of the CG – “CG-CL-T” design (positive longitudinal […]

Load Control Terms

[Ref AVIA4021] Below is one of the part captured from an airline’s “Loadsheet & Load Message”. To start with, let’s learn some basic load control terms. DOW [Dry Operating Weight] = BW [Basic Weight (Aircraft)] + Crew (and their bags) + Pantry OW [Operating Weight] = DOW + TOF (Take-off fuel weight) Block fuel (weight)= […]