Somatogravic illusion

[Ref 3-9 Dec Flight International Magazine] What’s Somatogravic illusion? Somatogravic illusion is the tendency – in the absence of visual references – to incorrectly perceive acceleration as an increase in pitch attitude, a perception that can lead pilots instinctively to make nose-down inputs even if the aircraft is flying level.

Undesired aircraft state

[Ref SKYbrary, Airbus FAST magazine, FAA AC 120-90] What’s an undesired aircraft state? According to FAA doc: Undesired aircraft state – a position, speed, attitude, or configuration of an aircraft that: results from flight crew error, actions, or inaction; and clearly reduces safety margins Undesired aircraft state can be managed effectively, returning the aircraft to safe […]

What’s ‘Swiss Cheese model’ ?

[Ref MULTIMODAL SAFETY MANAGEMENT AND HUMAN FACTORS, Wiki] Swiss cheese model (a.k.a Cumulative act effect model) is broadly used to study the accident/incident causation – considers the interaction between latent conditions and errors and their contribution to organizational accidents. Systems comprise various organizational levels that contribute to the production of system outputs (e.g decision makers, line management, […]

What’s Human Factor (HF) and Human Performance?

[Ref. HKAR-145 Approved Maintenance Organisations, Issue 5 Revision 2] According to HKCAD: ‘Human Factors (HF)‘ means principles which apply to aeronautical design, certification, training, operations and maintenance and which seek safe interface between the human and other system components by proper consideration of human performance. ‘Human Performance‘ means human capabilities and limitations which have an […]

What’s Air Traffic Management (ATM)?

[Ref ICAO Doc 9854, ASIA/PACIFIC MET/ATM Seminar, AVIA4019 handouts] “Air traffic management is the dynamic, integrated management of air traffic and airspace — safely, economically and efficiently — through the provision of facilities and seamless services in collaboration with all parties.” Here, management of air traffic and airspace including : air traffic services (ATS) airspace […]

What’s IATA – International Air Transport Association

[Ref The Global Airline Industry ISBN: 978-0-470-74077-4] International Air Transport Association (IATA) – is the trade association of most of the international airlines in the world. It’s founded in 1945, the year after the Chicago Convention. Its formation is aiming to coordinate international airfares during annual “traffic conferences”. Later, IATA adopted a two-tier organizational structure […]

What’s Transponder? What’s Mode A, Mode C, Mode S?

[Ref. Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 14-25, SKYbrary] What’s transponder? Transponder is the airborne portion of the secondary surveillance radar (SSR) system. It receives an interrogation signal sending from ground based interrogator, then it send the return signal back to the ground based radarscope.   What’s Mode A, Mode C, Mode S? Mode A equipment transmits […]

What’s Window of circadian low (WOCL)?

[Ref HK CAD 372] What’s “Window of circadian low (WOCL)”? The WOCL occurs around the time of the daily low point in core body temperature ‐ usually around 03:00‐05:00 when a person is fully adapted to the local time zone. In CAD 371(2nd edition), WOCL is defined as the period 0200-0559 individual body clock time. Time […]

What’s overboost? (turbocharger)

[Ref. Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 7-14] What’s overboost? Overboost is the situation on engine with turbocharger when the waste gate is left closed after descending from a high altitude, then the manifold pressure (MAP) exceeds the engine’s limitation. Overboost may produce severe detonation because of the leaning effect resulting from increased air […]