What’s the best way to avoid accident and prevent error?

[Ref ISBN 978-1-61854-262-5 Chapter 18, FAA-H-8083-25B] Q:  What’s the best way to avoid accident and prevent error? A:  To avoid accident and prevent error, pilots should learn and apply ADM, CRM and Threat and Error management skills in their daily operations. Actually, the goal of all flight crews is good ADM and the use of CRM […]

What’s CAT (Clear Air Turbulence)?

[Ref AC 00-6B 17.2.3.2, AC 00-30C 6.5] What’s CAT (Clear Air Turbulence)? Clear Air Turbulence (CAT) is a higher altitude turbulence phenomenon occurring (from 20,000 to 50,000 feet) in cloud-free regions associated with wind shear. CAT can occur between the core of a jet stream and the surrounding air. It can often affect an aircraft without […]

What’s “Severe Wind Shear”?

[Ref AC 00-54] What’s “Severe Wind Shear“? By FAA AC definition, “Severe Windshear” refers to a rapid change in wind direction or velocity causing airspeed changes(>) greater than 15 knots OR vertical speed changes (>) greater than 500 feet per minute (fpm).  

What’s VOR?

What’s VOR? VOR: the full name is Very High Frequency  Omni-directional Range, which is a very common in modern civil aviation industry. VOR transmitted between 108 – 117.95 Mhz is used for Navigation purpose and VOR transmitted between 118 – 137 Mhz is used for radio communication. If VOR is used as NAV Aid, it […]

What’s GPWS (Ground proximity warning system)

[Ref ACE The Technical Pilot Interview 152/348] The GPWS (Ground proximity warning system) is mandatory required for public transport aircraft over 5700 kg. It is a important system provide two major functions: 1) alert and 2) warning system. After reaching certain precomputerized active range, a central computer will then activate aural and visual alerts to warn the […]

What’s Turbulence?

[Ref AC 00-6B] Turbulence is irregular motion of an aircraft in flight, especially when characterized by rapid up-and-down motion caused by a rapid variation of atmospheric wind velocities. 3 major causes (types) of Turbulence convective currents : called convective turbulence obstructions in the wind flow : called mechanical turbulence (e.g Mountain Wave) wind shear   […]

What’s the difference between flying over land and over water at daytime? (Convective currents)

[Ref Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 12-7] Q: What’s the difference between flying over land/pavement/continent and over water at daytime? A: the convective currents cause turbulent   Convective currents Convective currents cause the bumpy, turbulent air sometimes experienced when flying at lower altitudes during warmer weather.   Pavement / Land releasing heat wave […]

What’s “Mountain Waves”?

[Ref AC 00-6B Chapter 17, AC 00-57] Mountain waves are a form of mechanical turbulence which develop above and downwind (Lee side) of mountains ridge. Risk of Mountain waves? Range: This mechanical turbulence may extend 600 miles (1,000 km) or more downwind from the mountain range. Intensity: This mechanical turbulence are classified as severe to […]

What’s Radio Altimeter?

[Ref AVIA4019, ACE The Technical Pilot Interview 146/348] Radio Altimeters (RA) provide an accurate height measurement from 2,500 ft down to 50 ft (AGL – above ground level). Indeed, the function usually are binding with barometric altimeter in most commercial aircraft.   How RA works? The basic principle of the radio altimeter is that a […]