[Understanding Weather & Climate, Books a la Carte Edition (6th Edition) #ISBN-13: 978-0321773227 #ISBN-10: 0321773225 CH 6 Cloud Development and Forms]
Orographic uplift / Orographic effect – The upward displacement of air that leads to adiabatic cooling and possible cloud formation (orographic clouds)
Precipitation on windward side; Rain shadow effect on leeward side
Rain shadow effect occur due to compression on descending slop, the temperature increase as well as cause water to be evaporate
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Turbulence more severe at leeward side
Indeed, as the air flows down the leeward side of the mountain, valleys or canyons, the air follows the contour of the terrain and is increasingly turbulent. This tends to push an aircraft into the side of a mountain. The stronger the wind, the greater the downward pressure and turbulence become.