[Ref Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, FAA-H-8083-25B Page 12-7]
Q: What’s the difference between flying over land/pavement/continent and over water at daytime?
A: the convective currents cause turbulent
Convective currents cause the bumpy, turbulent air sometimes experienced when flying at lower altitudes during warmer weather.
Pavement / Land releasing heat wave cause updrafts
Water bodies/Vegetation like a group of trees absorbing hear cause downdrafts
Rightly, convective currents cause the local wind circulation – sea breeze (day), land breeze (night).